May 01 2015

Smart Bottle

JW_Blue_Smart_Bottle_3Diageo and Thin Films have recently demonstrated a smart bottle.   The seal of the bottle contains a NFC tag.  This tag not only carries unique identity of the bottle, but it detects also whether the seal was opened or is still closed.  This smart tag allows interesting features:

  • As for traditional RFID tags, it enables the follow up of the bottle along the delivery chain.
  • As it uses NFC, the seal allows a mobile phone app to identify the bottle, and thus create a personalized experience (interesting features for privacy: it is possible to track who purchased the bottle (at the point of sale with the credit card) and see who actually drinks it (was it a gift?))
  • As it detects if the seal has been broken, it is a way to detect tampering of the bottle during the distribution chain.  This may thwart some forms of piracy and counterfeiting.
  • The tag is also a way to authenticate the origin of the product.  It may have interesting application for expensive rare bottles to verify counterfeiting.
  • It does not yet tell if you drank too much.  This will be the next application associated to the smart glass that will detect what you drink and how much 

See thinfilm brochure opensense

Apr 27 2015

CANS 2015 submissions

The 14th International Conference on Cryptology and Network Security (CANS 2015) will be at Marrakech in December.  The submission deadline is 19 june 2015.  The topics of interest are rather broad:

  • Access Control for Networks
  • Adware, Malware, and Spyware
  • Anonymity & Pseudonymity
  • Authentication, Identification
  • Cloud Security
  • Cryptographic Algorithms & Protocols
  • Denial of Service Protection
  • Embedded System Security
  • Identity & Trust Management
  • Internet Security
  • Key Management
  • Mobile Code Security
  • Multicast Security
  • Network Security
  • Peer-to-Peer Security
  • Security Architectures
  • Security in Social Networks
  • Sensor Network Security
  • Virtual Private Networks
  • Wireless and Mobile Security

The accepted papers will be published in Springer LNCS.  It is an IACR event.

Apr 14 2015

France: charter of good practices in online advertising

On 23 March 2015, the representatives of the French advertising industry signed a charter of good practices to fight piracy.  This charter is an initiative of the French minister of culture and communications.

My highlights of the three page long charter:

1- the signing companies establish and implement clear and transparent recommendations to prevent pirate sites to deal with them.

2- these recommendations will be published and widely disseminated

3- The signatories implement the means at their disposal, each according to its role to prevent of advertisements on pirate sites.   Each signatory may use its own blacklist and own mitigation techniques.

4- A Committee will monitor and publish the results.

Most of the revenues of pirate sites are coming from advertisement.  Unfortunately, legitimate businesses sometimes advertise on these pirate sites.   With the current automatic auctioning systems, often these brands are even not aware where they advertise.  This practice has three consequences:

  1. It provides revenue to pirate sites
  2. It gives some feeling of legitimacy to these sites as famous brands advertise there.   People may be less suspicious on the legality of a site advertising known brands than the same site advertising Russian brides.
  3. It tarnishes the reputation of the advertising brand.

The text of the charter is available here.  Of course, it is in French.

 

Mar 13 2015

RowHammer: A powerful new attack

In 2014, a group of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and Intel published a new kind of disturbance attack on DRAM: rowHammer [1]. At the difference of SRAM (static), DRAM (dynamic) need regular refreshing to keep their memory. DRAM are organized by rows. Indeed, when reading or writing to an address, the circuit access the full row rather than only one specific cell. Cells are susceptible to inter-cell crosstalk (like any electronic elements). The researchers discovered the fast, repetitive reading of two rows they could generate a high rate of disturbances that produce errors in the memory. The actual code to produce errors is simple and short. It is a simple loop that reads two addresses, flushes the registers and the instruction cache. A typical 1 million iterations takes less than one second. The code does not need to be root. They tested 129 different DDR3 DRAM commercial modules. They induced errors in 110 modules.

Thus, they demonstrate that with simple software, it was possible to wreck DRAM memory.

This month, Google researchers went one step further. They used the rowHammer technique to create actual fault injection. On a standard x86-64 bit machine, they demonstrated two exploits [2].

  • Native Client (NACl) is a sandboxing system that allows only a limited subset of instructions. They were able to have ‘blacklisted’ instructions to execute in the NACl environment.
  • They succeeded to escalate the privilege to Kernel privilege on a standard Linux.

Of course, these exploits have some limitations. The escalation was done only on a Linux machine without some sandboxing mechanisms. Nevertheless, they highlight that rowHammer may become a powerful fault injection tool. The interesting part of rowHammer is that it is purely software.

Currently, they have only experimented rowHammer on standard DRAM commercial modules. This may be an interesting way to bypass some trusted execution environment that isolate the DRAM space.

DRAM for servers should be more resistant to rowHammer as Error Correction is embedded in the chip. Nevertheless, error correction can only correct a limited amount of simultaneous errors. It may be possible perhaps to also overflow the correction. If rowHammer would be possible on DRAM for servers, then it may be a potential interesting attack vector in the public cloud. The attacker may either bypass the sandbox or impair the memory of another user of the same server.

We may see in coming months more studies and exploits around rowHammer. Will it have the same impact than side channel attacks? To be surveyed…

The two papers are worthwhile to read. Read them in the chronological order.

[1]    Y. Kim, R. Daly, J. Kim, C. Fallin, J. H. Lee, D. Lee, C. Wilkerson, K. Lai, and O. Mutlu, “Flipping bits in memory without accessing them: An experimental study of DRAM disturbance errors,” in Proceeding of the 41st annual international symposium on Computer architecture, 2014, pp. 361–372.

[2]    C. Evans, “Project Zero: Exploiting the DRAM rowhammer bug to gain kernel privileges,” Project Zero, 09-Mar-2015.

 

Feb 23 2015

Lenovo, Superfish, Komodia: a Man In The Middle story

Lenovo has made this week the headlines with the alleged malware: superfish.   Lenovo delivered  some PCx loaded with “bloatware” Superfish.  Superfish provides solution that performs visual search.  Seemingly, Superfish designed a software that allowed to place contextual ads on the web browsing experience.   To perform this highjacking, superfish uses a software stack from Komodia:  SSL Digestor.  According to the site of Komodia:

Our advanced SSL hijacker SDK is a brand new technology that allows you to access data that was encrypted using SSL and perform on the fly SSL decryption. The hijacker uses Komodia’s Redirector platform to allow you easy access to the data and the ability to modify, redirect, block, and record the data without triggering the target browser’s certification warning.

How does Komodia do the decryption without triggering the certificate validation of the browser?   The CERT has disclosed on Thursday the trick with its vulnerability note VU#529496.

Komodia Redirector with SSL Digestor installs non-unique root CA certificates and private keys, making systems broadly vulnerable to HTTPS spoofing

Komodia install stealthily its own root certificate within the browsers’ CA repository.   The stack holds its private key. This allows to ‘self-sign’ certificate to forge SSL connection.  The software then generates a typical Man In The Middle.   Despite the private key was encrypted, it was possible to extract some corresponding private keys (easy to guess the password; komodia).  This means that as long as the root key is not erased from browsers’ repository, an attacker may use the corresponding private key.  The attacker may sign malware that would be accepted by the machine, and generate phony certificates for phishing.   In other words, other principals than Superfish may use the hack for infecting Lenovo computers.

Lenovo provided a patch that removed the Superfish application.   Unfortunately, the patch does not erase the malicious certificate.  Microsoft provided such patch, and Mozilla should soon revoke it.

This is a perfect example of supply chain attack. The main difference is that the supplier voluntarily infected its product.    Do never forget law 4: Trust No One.

PS:  at the time of writing, the Komodia site was down, allegedly for a DOS.  It may also be because too many people try to visit the site.

Feb 13 2015

Does your TV set watch you?

Benjamin Michele and Andrew Karpow presented a scary Proof of Concept  using two Samsung Smart TVs.  They used the integrated media player of these Smart TV set.  For the most recent one, they discovered that the TV set used a 2011 version of the open source FFMPEG’s libavformat library. This library identifies the type of content to be played and demux it before the content is transmitted to Samsung’s proprietary media player.  The libavformat library supports many containers.  It is a complex piece of software, and as such as many new discovered bugs. By scanning the bug-tracking database of this open source library, the researchers selected one vulnerability that was not patched in the version used by the TV set.  This vulnerability allowed them to execute arbitrary code when playing a forged content.  As the player executes in root shell, the forged payload also executes in root shell.  This means that the payload has full access to the platform.  As the Smart TV had an integrated camera and microphone, they wrote an exploit that captured the video of the camera and the sound from the microphone.  The captured information can then be sent to a remote server.  As the payload is encapsulated in a real movie, the consumer is not aware that his TV set is being infected and that he is spied.  The researchers found a way to flash the Smart TV set and thus make the infection permanent.

Of course, the payload could do other things.  The researchers could perform a thorough analysis of the TV set because they succeeded to get root access, and thus could explore the system and easily work on the exploit. The target were Samsung TV sets.  Most probably, any other smart TV of any brand could be attacked in a similar way but using another vulnerability.

This POC highlights several interesting points:

  • This exploit highlights an important issue of IoT.  Will devices in the field be upgraded and securely patched?  There are two issues that are not yet solved:
    • Will manufacturers do the security maintenance for the lifetime of the product?   Currently, the business model is to sell one device and not maintain it (unless there is a very serious bug that impact the behaviour).  How could the manufacturer finance this maintenance?  In the software world, maintenance is financed by either new version or maintenance contract for professional expensive applications.  This is not the case in the consumer domain.
    • Will consumers apply the patch?  The likelihood is low if we extrapolate from the computer world. Too many consumers’ computers are not patched.
  • The wide use of open source libraries has brought some benefits.  It is less expensive for companies and it is claimed to be more secure.  Unfortunately, it also has its downside.
    • This last claim is only true if all systems would be patched.  If it is not the case, then the use of widely deployed open source libraries may be an advantage for the attackers.  The attacker can experiment on his own system before trying on the targeted device.
    • Furthermore, the more a ‘common’ library is deployed, the more targets will be hit whenever a vulnerability is found in this library.  Heartbleed is a good illustration.
  • The more features a device has, the higher the risk to have vulnerabilities.

Reference:

Michele, Benjamin, and Andrew Karpow. “Watch and Be Watched:  Compromising All Smart TV Generations.” In Proc. of the 11th Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC). Las Vegas, NV, USA: IEEE, 2014.

Feb 05 2015

IoT, Security and energy

Trappe, Howard and Moore, three researchers from the University of Rutgers, have published an interesting paper in the latest issue of IEEE Security & Privacy.   The title is ‘Low-Energy Security: Limits and Opportunities in the Internet of Things’

IoT will not only be connected phones, TVs, or fridges, it will also be myriads of tiny sensors (the famous concept of smart dust).   Whereas the big devices have reasonable access to energy and calculation, these sensors  do not have access to energy and calculation.  They will have two issues:

  • A very low energy consumption;  You do not expect to charge every day a thermal sensor.  You will rather install it and forget about it for many years.
  • As they are low cost and low energy consumption, the calculation capabilities will be drastically reduced.

Unfortunately, the collected data will serve to major decisions by applications or may leak private information. They will need to be protected in integrity, and confidentiality.  With the hardware constraints, conventional cryptography is out of reach.   Moreover, poor security is not an option (it is useless), there is a major challenge for the security of IoT.

They present some of the potential new methods to secure the communication.  For instance, the receiver that has serious calculation power could authenticate the sensor by fingerprinting the analog characteristics of the transmission.  This would not put any burden on the sensor.   To reduce the encrypted data which burns energy, they propose to encrypt only major variations.  This may open interesting side channel attacks.  For confidentiality, they propose to revisit the concept of ‘wire-tap channel’ disclosed by Wyner in 1975.

The paper is worthy to read as it clearly states the problems and highlights some potential research topics.

 

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