We are not yet there. Nevertheless, Christian Holz and Patrick Baudisch, two German researchers seem to have made some progress towards this dream. They designed a tabletop system with a touch screen that allows fingerprint detection.
The magic comes from the screen material. it uses a new fiber optical plate. The plate is made of million highly reflective fibers. Infra red lights is reflected back to the emitter. When infra red lights exits the plate through skin, it reflects less light back. Thus, an high resolution infra red camera can capture highly contrasted fingerprints. This allows to authenticate the user who is using the touch screen.
Unfortunately, the current system requires a projector and a camera. Thus, it is suitable for table top solution with enough room beneath the screen. Not yet ready for small portable devices.
In any cases, it opens many interesting use cases. They will present a paper at UIST’13.