see Number Field Sieve

NGSCB (Next-Generation Secure Computing Base)

is the new name of Palladium

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

is a division of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It issues standards for cryptographic routines. In January 1977, NIST declared DES the official U.S. encryption standard. In 2000, NIST declared RINDJAEL, the winner of AES, as the new official U.S. encryption standard.


is a non-secret random number used to defeat playback attack. It is also called freshness challenges.


provides assurance that a user, system client or server application cannot deny being the originator of a message after sending it. It is a property of public key authentication because of the privacy of the responsibility of your own secret key.

NRSS (National Renewable Security Standard)

is a standard of interface for Digital Pay TV access. Through this interface are exchanged the scrambled data stream and if entitled is returned the clear data stream.

NSA (National Security Agency)

is the official security body of the U.S. government. NSA conducts research in cryptology and defines the technical limitations for exporting cryptography. NSA has created a global spy eavesdropping network code-named Echelon. Its stated missions are signal intelligence and communication security.

 Number Field Sieve (NFS)

is a mathematical method to factorize numbers.

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